Espalier Fruit Trees – Forms

UBC Espalier Apple

UBC Espalier Apple Summer

The classic espalier form is the Horizontal Espalier (also call the T-Espalier or Horizontal Palmette or Cordon Ferraguti). Many people I have met think this is what “Espalier” means. This is not the easiest espalier form to create, especially if you are looking for perfect geometric form with each set of horizontal branches being attached exactly opposite each other. Temperate fruit trees do not

Horizontal Espalier UBC Botanical Garden winter

Horizontal Espalier UBC Botanical Garden winter

have buds growing opposite one another, the skill of the espalierist is demonstrated by how close to directly opposite these branches are. Pears and apples are most commonly grown in this form. Plums, cherries, apricots and many other trees can be growing as Horizontal Espaliers. This tree is in the UBC Botanical Garden.

The University of British Columbia Espalier Fruit Tree Collection

The term espalier originally meant a two dimensional tree trained flat against a wall. The term has changed in most countries around the world to include a wide range of two and three dimensional forms. Espalier training of fruit trees fascinates me. My backyard is full of fruit trees and bush fruits trained to grow in a wide range of patterns. Recently I started working with the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden to

UBC Espalier Apple Trees

UBC Espalier Apple Trees

rebuild their espalier fruit tree collection. At one time this collection was world class, recently canker infected apple trees resulted in many tree being removed. Plans are developing to rebuild this collection with trees that are suitable for our West Coast (NA) climate and can be espaliered. Follow my posts over the next few months to follow the redevelopment of the collection back to amazing. UBC Apple Trees in summer.

Summer Heat and Bitter Pit

The unusually hot summer temperatures that we have been experiencing on the West

Sunburn of Apple Fruit

Sunburn of Apple Fruit

Coast is stressing our fruit trees. I have seen sunburn on leaves and fruit similar to the type of damage that is common in the hot dry areas of the interior. When temperatures rise to 35+ degrees C this type of damage happens quickly to exposed fruit and older leaves.

Of more concern for apples is the development of Bitter Pit. This is a temporary Calcium deficiency induced my drought. The BC Ministry of Agriculture has an excellent information page about this

Severe Bitter Pit of Apples

Severe Bitter Pit of Apples

problem: Bitter Pit. The way to avoid this problem is to provide your trees with consistent adequate soil moisture. The damage is usually concentrated on the calyx end of the fruit and it will be worse in very large fruit and on young fast growing trees. Excess pruning and applications of too much nitrogen will aggravate this problem.

If you have one of these problems and willing to share please send me some images.

Summer and Fall Fruit Tree Workshops at the UBC Botanical Garden

To register go to: UBC Botanical Garden Workshops

SUMMER GRAFTING OF TREE FRUITS

Saturday August 15, 2015, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre. Imagine grafting and pruning your fruit trees during the long days of summer. Learn how to create your own ‘Fruit Salad Trees’ using trees you already have or newly purchased trees. Gain hands-on skills in T-Budding, Chip Budding, Approach and In-arch Grafting. Learn how to using budding and grafting to add branches and develop amazing geometric espalier tree forms. Also learn how to care for your new grafts during the fall, winter and next spring.

LATE SUMMER PRUNING OF ESPALIER AND OTHER FRUIT TREES

Saturday August 15, 2015, 1:00 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre. Explore late summer tips and tricks for pruning and training your trees to grow decorative plants suitable for small spaces. Learn how to easily develop fascinating espalier fruit trees in your garden or in containers on decks and balconies including single and double spirals; 2, 3 and 5 multiple cordons; horizontal cordons and multiple U forms. There will be a demonstration of container grown espalier cherries, plums, apples, pears, figs, persimmons and blueberries.

FALL FRUIT TREE PEST & DISEASE CONTROL

Saturday September 26, 2015, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre. Learn how to identify insects and diseases that damage local fruit and fruit trees. Controls for many of these insects and diseases work best if applied during the fall and winter.  Walk away with practical tips and skills to manage these problems the organic way.

New Fruit Tree Workshops at UBC

Container Growing of Espalier Fruit Trees on Your Deck

Saturday April 25 2015, 10:00 am – 3:00pm
UBC Botanical Garden
Cost: $55.25 members, UBC students & UNA; $65.00 public

Learn how to grow tree fruits in containers, and to turn trees into creative espalier designs for your deck or backyard.

Tree Fruit Organic Pest Control

Saturday May 2 2015, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students & UNA; $35.00 public

Having pest or disease troubles with your fruit trees? Learn tips and tricks to manage your trees the organic way.

Espalier Tree Fruit Spring Training and Blossom Thinning

Saturday May 2 2015, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students & UNA; $35.00 public

Pinch, nick and notch? Gain hands-on training of how to espalier apple and pear trees when trees in your garden as they develop new shoots, blossoms and small fruit.

Apple & Pear Fruit Thinning and Bagging

Saturday June 6 2015, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
UBC Botanical Garden
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students & UNA; $35.00 public

Interested in increasing the fruit size of your fruit trees? Learn tips and tricks for thinning and managing fruit loads.

Espalier Summer Pruning and Tree Training

Saturday June 6, 2015, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students & UNA; $35 public

Explore tips and tricks for pruning and training your trees to grow decorative plants suitable for small spaces.

Summer Grafting of Tree Fruits

Saturday August 15, 2015, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students, UNA; $35.00 public

Imagine grafting and pruning your fruit trees during the long days of summer. Gain hands-on skills in grafting and budding.

Late Summer Pruning of Espalier and Other Fruit Trees

Saturday August 15, 2015, 1:00 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students, UNA; $35.00 public

Explore late summer tips and tricks for pruning and training your trees to grow decorative plants suitable for small spaces.

Fall Fruit Tree Pest & Disease Control

Saturday September 26, 2015, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm
UBC Botanical Garden, Reception Centre
Cost: $29.74 members, UBC students, UNA; $35.00 public

Learn how to identify insects and diseases that damage local trees. Walk away with practical tips and skills to manage your fruit trees the organic way.

Click here to visit the UBC Botanical Garden website and register. 

New Tree Fruit Workshops at the UBC Botanical Gardens and Langley

I am now the “Tree Fruit Adviser to the UBC Botanical Garden” and will be teaching a new series of workshops connected to the Espalier Fruit Tree planting in the Food Garden. The first of these are now online with several more to follow in the next few days:

New Tree Fruit Workshops at the UBC Botanical Garden

To register go to: UBC Botanical Garden Workshops

PLAN AND ESTABLISH ESPALIER FRUIT TREES

Saturday, March 14, 2015, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

FRUIT TREE GRAFTING

Saturday, March 14, 2015 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm

 

I am also teaching workshops this spring in Langley:

Surrey/Langley Continuing Education

To register go to: Surrey/Langley Continuing Education or phone 604-533-4227 or 604-856-4447

TREE FRUIT GRAFTING – MAKING NEW TREES AND ADDING TO EXISTING TREES

Sunday March 22, 10:00 am – 3:00 pm

TREE FRUIT THINNING, SUMMER PRUNING AND HANDS ON ORGANIC PEST CONTROL 

Saturday May 30, 10:00 am – 3:00 pm

Pruning Apple Trees – The Basics

PDF version of this article Pruning Apple Trees Oct 2014

The following are the key things you need to know to prune apples trees for fruit production:

Sunlight – To put more fruit on your trees, prune to open them up so that direct sunlight hits all the leaves on the tree.

Producing fruit buds – Most new apple fruit buds are produced on small short side shoots. These small shoots grow one to a few inches long in the first year, they produce a fruit bud the next year, and in the year after that the fruit bud produces flowers and hopefully fruit. These small fruiting branches are called fruit spurs.

Apical dominance – This is the control exerted by the apical (topmost) bud over the growth of the buds below it. The apical bud produces plant hormones that flow downward inside the shoot, suppressing the growth of the lower buds. The growth of trees can be decreased or increased by various types of pruning and bending branches to control apical dominance

Controlling apical dominance to produce more fruit spurs – Apical dominance is strongest in vertical shoots and these fast growing vertical shoots do not form many fruit spurs. Bending upright shoots to between 30 and 60 degrees from horizontal or pruning out the upright branches leaving branches at this angle weakens apical dominance and side shoots will grow and develop into fruit spurs.

When to Prune Your Apple Trees – Dormant season pruning. Pruning fruit trees during the dormant season (when the leaves are off the tree) has a stimulating effect on the tree. If your trees are large and overgrown, this is the time of year to remove some branches to increase sunlight penetration throughout the tree. All large branch removal should be done at this time of the year.

Summer pruning – Pruning during the summer slows tree growth, the opposite of dormant season pruning. This type of pruning results in weak re-growth that often produces fruit buds one or two years later. The most common summer pruning technique is to cut vertical shoots over 6″ long to 5 leaves (or 5 buds) in late July. Summer pruning will control trees that are growing too fast.

When to Bend Branches to Produce More Fruit Buds – The month of April is the best time to bend branches that are too upright down to between 30 and 60 degrees from horizontal. If you tie them down firmly for about 6 weeks they will stay at the angle. April is also the month when the small side branches that become fruit spurs start to develop.

Tree Fruit Events, Courses and Workshops Fall 2014

Tree Fruit Pest and Disease Control

October 8, 7 – 9:30 pm

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

 

How to Produce More Quality Fruit on Your Fruit Trees

October 9, 7:00 pm

Presentation to the Mission Garden Club

 

Planning and Planting A Successful Home Orchard

October 15, 7 – 9:30 pm

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

 

University of British Columbia Apple Festival

October 18 and 19th, 11:00 am – 4:00 pm

I will have my own booth at this event, come and visit me.

UBC Apple Festival

 

Espalier Training of Shrubs and Fruit Trees

October 22, 7 – 9:30 pm

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

 

Apple and Pear Tree Pruning

October 25, 9:30 am – 3 pm

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

 

Prune Your Apple and Pear Trees

October 29,10am to 12:30

Lee Valley Tools, Coquitlam

 

Apple and Pear Pruning and Training

November 1, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

Course at VanDusen Botanical Gardens

 

How to Grow More Fruit on Your Apple and Pear Trees

November 1, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm

Course at VanDusen Botanical Gardens

 

Plan and Plant a West Coast Orchard

November 6, 5:00 pm – 7:30 pm

Lee Valley Tools, Coquitlam

 

Planning and Planting Successful Home Orchards

November 8th, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

City of Richmond Environmental Sustainability Workshop

To Register

 

How to Put more Fruit on Your Trees

November 8th, 1:30 pm – 4:00 pm

City of Richmond Environmental Sustainability Workshop

To Register

 

How to Put more Fruit on Your Trees

November 15, 9:30 am – 3 pm

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

 

Planning and Planting A Successful Home Orchard

November 22, 9:30 am – 12 noon

Fraser Valley Continuing Education

Registration

Richard Hallman’s Workshops and Presentations September 2014

The following are my workshops and presentations for September 2014 as well as the web links for more information and to register. 

The Science of Tree Fruit Production

September 13, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

Course at VanDusen Botanical Gardens

 

Fruit Trees and Pruning

September 20, 12:00 noon – 12:45

Workshop at Art’s Nursery Fall Garden Event, 8940 192nd Street, Surrey, BC.

 

Fall Pruning

September 21, 12:00 noon – 12:45

Workshop at Art’s Nursery Fall Garden Event, 8940 192nd Street, Surrey, BC.

 

Growing and Training Fruit Trees in Containers and Small Gardens

September 24, 7:00pm

Presentation to the South Surrey Garden Club

 

Fall and Winter Tree Fruit Pest and Disease Control

September 27th, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

City of Richmond Environmental Sustainability Workshop

To Register

 

Fall Fruit Tree Pruning

September 27th, 10:00 am – 12:30 pm

City of Richmond Environmental Sustainability Workshop

To Register

 

Seasonal Fruit Tree Pests and Diseases

October 29,10am to 12:30

Lee Valley Tools, Coquitlam